Scarcity and Surfeit
The ecology of Africa’s conflicts

EDITED BY
Jeremy Lind and Kathryn Sturman

African Centre for Technology Studies
and
Institute for Security Studies


388 pages

Funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Governments of Sweden and Switzerland

Published by the Institute for Security Studies, South Africa, 2002
Block C, 301 Brooklyn Court, Bronkhorst Street, New Muckleneuk, Pretoria

Available from the ISS for R60.00 per copy

CONTENTS

Preface

Disclaimer

Contributors

1. Contemporary Conflict Analysis in Perspective
João Gomes Porto

Introduction
Developing Theories of Conflict Analysis
‘Greed versus Grievance’: Tautological Debate or Two Sides of the Same Coin?
The Multi-Level Nature and Dynamic Life Cycles of Armed
Conflicts: Towards an Analytical Framework
Ecological Sources of Conflict

2. Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda
Jean Bigagaza, Carolyne Abong and Cecile Mukarubuga


Introduction
Background to the Conflict
Key Factors
Key Actors
Conflict Management Strategies
Overview of the Environment
Land as a Source of Conflict
Conclusion

3. Conflict and Coffee in Burundi
Johnstone Summit Oketch and Tara Polzer

Introduction
Background to the Conflict
Pre-colonial Burundi
Colonial Rule
Post-independence
Key Factors in the Conflict
Conflict Resolution
Overview of the Environment
Land use: Blighted History and Natural (Mis)fortunes
Conclusion

4. Coltan exploitation in the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo
Celine Moyroud and John Katunga

Introduction
Background to the Conflict
Key Factors in the Conflict
Other Causes of Conflict
Peace Initiatives
Overview of the Environment
Coltan Exploitation in the Eastern DRC
Conclusion

5. Oil and Water in Sudan
Paul Goldsmith, Lydia A Abura and Jason Switzer

Introduction
Background to the Conflict
Overview of the environment
Case Study 1: The Jonglei Canal
Case Study 2: Nuer-Dinka Violence
Case Study 3: Private Sector Participation in Oil Production in Sudan
Conclusion

6. Spilling Blood over Water? The Case of Ethiopia
Fiona Flintan and Imeru Tamrat


Introduction
Background to the Conflict
Underlying Causes of Conflict
Overview of the Environment
Agriculture
Climate and Water Resources
Management of Water Resources
Case Study 1: The Awash River Basin
Case Study 2: The Nile Basin
Conclusion

7. Deegaan, Politics and War in Somalia
Ibrahim Farah, Abdirashid Hussein and Jeremy Lind


Introduction
Background to the Conflict
Peace and Reconciliation Initiatives
Overview of the Environment
Deegaan and Conflict in Jubbaland
Conclusion

8. Conclusion – Where to from Here?
Richard Cornwall

Bibliography